Cohesion and Coherence

Cohesion and Coherence

While writing an essay there must be a logical and meaningful link of some kind between the individual lines of each paragraph as well as between paragraphs themselves. This sensible link is accomplished through a variety of chunks and phrases, which, are sparsely scattered in different parts of the essay:

For a paragraph following another one to seem coherent, the first line of the second paragraph ought to begin with such phrases as:

 

Likewise,
Similarly,
Also,
In addition,
In addition to,
Additionally,
What is more,
Furthermore,
Moreover,
For a paragraph discussing opposing ideas, the first line of the paragraph can begin with:

Unlike
As opposed to
On the other hand,
On the flip side,
For another thing,
On the contrary,
Conversely,
The reverse side of the coin is……..

So is the case with the last conclusive paragraph:

To conclude,
To sum up,
To recap,
In sum,
In conclusion,
In short,
In brief,
In a nutshell,
All in all,
By and large,
Finally/eventually/ultimately,
In the final analysis,
To make a long story short,….

 

To support the main ideas presented in the body paragraphs,certain phrases can be used to suggest examples, reasons and cause/effect relations:

Exemplification:

For example,…..
For instance,……
To exemplify,….
To clarify,……..
To illustrate,…..
To elucidate,……..
To mention but a few,….

 

Similar phrases can also be used to refer to ideas which are going to be presented another way:

In other words,……………
To put it another way,………….
Put ( it) simply,……………..

 

Reasons:

Because

Since

For                   + clause (subject+verb)

As

 

Because of
Due to                      + prepositional phrase/a noun phrase
Thanks to
Owing to

Due to the rain,………………
Due to his being tired,…………….
Due to working hard,………….
Due to the fact that + Sentence

Cause and effect:

(Focus on the effect)

Sth comes from sth else

Sth roots from sth else

Sth stems from sth else

Sth originates from sth else

Sth results from sth else

Focus on the causes

Sth causes sth else

Sth leads to sth else

Sth contributes to sth else

Sth results in sth else

Sth culminates in sth else

 

As a result,….
As a consequence,……….
As a repercussion,……..
Consequently,………….
………………in turn,……………………

 

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